Little or no chemical addition is required, unlike conventional clarification which generally relies on the addition of chemical coagulants and flocculants. Membrane technology development as a whole began with the first high- performance reverse osmosis membrane produced by in the early s Loeb and Sourirajan, , which led to the installation of large seawater desalination plant in arid regions of the world.
Since that time, growth in the total quantity of membranes sold with reference to the water treatment capacity provided has increased exponentially with time, with growth in microfiltration and ultrafiltration technologies over the last decade of the twentieth century being particularly pronounced Fig.
Membranes for industrial wastewater recovery and re-use
There has been a corresponding exponential decrease in membrane costs with installed membrane plant capacity, as reflected in data from an established hollow fibre microfiltration membrane Fig. The increasing stringency of water quality guidelines and standards being introduced for municipal water treatment, for example the European Union Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive UWWTD and the position taken by the UK Drinking Water Inspectorate regarding cryptosporidia, portend continued growth in this sector for membrane technology.
Indeed, the EU wastewater treatment membrane market is predicted to increase by an average annual growth rate of 5. Application of membrane processes within the industrial sector is also widespread and well established in many instances.
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Reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration, for example, are both widely used within the pharmaceutical industry to remove pyrogens in the provision of water for injection WFI. These processes are also essential in providing ultrapure water in semiconductor fabrication plant, where ultrafiltration is used for removing colloidal material and reverse osmosis both for primary deionisation followed by polishing using 10 Membranes for Industrial Wastewater Recovery and Re-use 9 Cartridge microfilters are routinely used for the removal of extraneous suspended solids from boiler feedwaters.
Although rather less well established, membranes are also used for the treatment of industrial effluents for discharge. Possibly the most recently developed and successfully implemented membrane process for wastewater treatment is the submerged membrane bioreactor, which is applied to both municipal and industrial effluents for the removal of dissolved organic material.
Market penetration of this technology has followed much the same trend as that of the more established microfiltration process Fig.
The use of membranes specifically for industrial wastewater reclamation and reuse has generally been constrained by the costs involved. Having said this, advances in membrane technology, and notably significant improvements in its Introduction 11 I00 No.
Book Review: Membranes for Industrial Wastewater Recovery and Re-use - PDF Free Download
Existing examples of closed-loop water recovery and reuse, invariably based on membrane technology, suggest that payback periods as low as 18 months are achievable, the timescale obviously being very sensitive to supply and discharge costs. Given the continuing downward pressure on costs Pigs.
References Raetens, D. The treatment of domestic and industrial wastewater is important in order to comply with the discharge requirements. Moreover, we no longer consider waste and wastewater only as waste products that need to be treated and processed, but also as a source of sustainable energy, resources and clean water. This fits in with the societal transition to a circular economy. The reuse of water is in some areas a matter of immediate necessity, while in others it offers benefits, such as the expansion of production capacity without having to draw on extra ground water resources.
The recovery and reuse of resources from wastewater, and of residuals from drinking water production processes, is also frequently worthwhile.
Our experts develop value chains, for instance, for phosphorus, nitrogen and cellulose from domestic wastewater, for lime and iron pellets from drinking water production, and for metals and salts from industrial process water. We also study the recovery of energy : water often contains both thermal and chemical energy.
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Chemical energy can be recovered from wastewater and sludge through the anaerobic route. The thermal energy recovered from water can, for example, be used in aquifer thermal energy storage ATES systems.
Book Review: Membranes for Industrial Wastewater Recovery and Re-use
And the residual heat in sewage water riothermie and industry water can also be exploited. Because we increasingly consider wastewater as a source of energy, resources and water, our experts work on the development of new concepts for wastewater treatment and sewer systems. Optimising the sewer system, by smart and rational collection system design and the modernisation and optimisation of wastewater treatment processes, leads to more effective treatment at a low er cost.